Journal of History School


The University Reform and Immigration of German Scientists to Turkey: Push and Pull Factors in the Perspective of International Migration

The roots of modernization movements for Turkey stretches far back in history. The modernization attempts, a notable amount of which were made especially during the last periods of the Ottoman Empire, started to show results during the initial years of the Republican era from 1923 onwards. The "University Reform" of 1933 was one of the most important of these attempts. The political, economical and social changes in Germany during the period after WWI had many crucial implications both on a domestic and international scale in medium term. Most notably, a rather tough period started for Jewish-German scientists who had been alienated from the system because of especially racist reasons. To leave or to stay for many of these scientists had similar connotations as to live or to die. The aforementioned migratory movements coincide with the University Reform of Turkey. Push and pull factors, which form the necessary decision stages in realising this movement, constitute an important aspect of the international migration phenomenon. The period, which had started with the emergence of modern Turkey, followed by the University Reform, brought about an important option for a target country for German scientists planning to migrate. There are a number of particular push and pull factors that form the people's decision-making processes during migratory movements. If migration is to take place on an international scale then the facts that need to be considered can take an even more complex form. In summary, the decision to migrate is made as a result of, or in order to achieve, something. This work analyzes the immigration of the Jewish-German scientists to Turkey in the context of the push and pull factors of international migration.


International Migration, Turkey, German Scientists, Atatürk, The University Reform

Author : Melih GÖRGÜN
Number of pages: 778-805
Full text:
Journal of History School
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