On Some Reflections Of Kösedağ Defeat In Arabic Sources
The biggest damage was brought to Islamic world by Mongols that took to the stage of history at the beginning of the 1220s under the leadership of Genghis Khan and conquered almost the half of the world within a half century. This invading power went down to Al-Jazeera after conquered Turkestan, Azerbaijan and Iran and almost wiped important centers of that period such as Gurgenç, Samarkand, Bukhara, Marv, Isfahan off the map by destroying them. Khwarezm Shahs State that was one of the main Turkish States made ineffective in a trice. Then, just Anatolian Seljuks, namely the other major Turkish Power was continuing its existence against the invasion of Mongols stroked a nonrecoverable blow on the Islamic world.
In the period of Sultan Alaeddin Keykubad, Anatolian Seljuks that fortified the borders by taking serious precautions was both endeavoring to constitute the political association in Islamic world and create a block against Mongols by annexing the regions in the area of domination of Ayyubids and some of the beyliks in Eastern Anatolia. Considerable developments realized in the period of Alaeddin Keykubad in this sense. Indeed, Mongols who recognized the situation was waiting in their headquarters in Mugan and walking on thin ice about entering to Anatolia. On the other hand, this circumstance didn’t take too long. Sultan Alaeddin was slaughtered by an assassination possible had Mongols’ hand in and all the military balances changed in the region by Babaî Rebellion came to blows not long before. Seljuks had to cancel the great intrenchment on borderlines became open to the Mongol threat. As a matter of fact, Mongols subjugated Erzurum right after the rebellion and entered in Anatolia in a few months. Much as there was not a significant war between the parties faced in Kösedağ, Anatolian Seljuks was defeated. When the state was entering into the process of collapse, the change and transformations started which will shape the next centuries of Anatolia.
Several records reflected Arabic sources about the Kösedağ Defeat that is a significant threshold regarding the history of our geography are compiled, and the reflection of this defeat to Islamic world are evaluated in this study based on these records.
Anatolian Seljuks, Mongols, Kösedağ Defeat, Arabic Sources, Sultan Gıyaseddin Keyhüsrev.