The Discourses for the Anti-Turkish League in the Letters of Marino Sanudo Torsello (1311-1334) and the Sudden Attack of Adramyttion of Crusader Naval League (1334)
The Mamluk conquest of Acre, the last castle of Crusaders in the eastern Mediterranean, in 1291 was not surprising but created great echoes in the Christian West. From the time of Acre’s capture to the project of Philip VI’s Crusade in 1336, many plans, projects and treatises were inked by a large group of writers ranging from the members of the royal families to mercants, from diplomats to clergy and people of military background in order to recover the Holy Land. At the beginning, these projects targeted the recover of the Holy Land right after the occupation of Egypt -the land of “infidel Muslims”- and Constantinople -the capital of “heretical Christians”. As of the first quarter of 14th century, after Turcoman Maritime Emirates in Western Anatolia started to pose a danger against the interests of Latins in the Aegean region, they turned into the attempts for anti-Turkish league. In this context, in 1334 and 1344, two attacks were carried out by Crusader Naval League on Izmir which was considered to have been the center and the most significant harbour of Aydin Principality’s sea power. This paper puts forward the facts and the events in the historical background of the Crusader Naval League of 1334 that reflects the shifting of Crusader’s impetus from Holy Land towards the Aegean by studying the book titled Liber Secretorum Fidelium Crucis written between 1306 and 1321, and the letters penned by Venetian Crusade theorist Marino Sanudo Torsello between 1323 and 1334.

Marino Sanudo Torsello, Crusader Naval League, Emirate of Aydin, Ghazi Umur Beg (Umur Pasha), Smyrna