Montreux Strait Convention of 1936: Anglo-Italian Conflict in the Meditarranean and Turkey Attempts to Involve Italy to the Convention, 1936-1938
The purpose of this study is to evaluate Turkey’s attempts to convince Italy to accept involving the Montreux Strait Convention of 1936 and the conflict between Italy and Britain from the signature of the Convention, 22 July 1936 until Italy’s involvement to it 4 February 1938. The Straits were disarmed by the Treaty of Lausanne and gained an international status. However, after 1932, having worried about Mussolini's ideal to reestablish the Roman Empire and his revisionist policies Turkey wanted to rearm the Straits and for this purpose started diplomatic initiatives. Turkey intensified its initiatives following Italy’s invasion of Ethiopia and the remilitarization of the Dodecanese Islands. On April 10 1936, Turkey gave a note to the Great Powers, and requested officially rearmament of the Straits. Following the negotiations Turkey reached its goal. But this contract, which succeeded in bringing Bolshevik Russia, Fascist Germany and Democratic England together under one roof, was not included in Italy. Based on mainly Italian and British archival documents this study aims at Turkey’s diplomatic initiatives to persuade Italy to involve the Convention and Italy’s reaction to it.

Montreux Strait Convention, Turkey, Italy, Britain.