Abstract


18th Century Ottoman Diplomacy and a New Element at the Crossroads of this Diplomacy: The Refugee Ukrainian Cossacks
Russia, which rose with Petro’s reign period, became an important power of the 18th century and tried to establish sovereignty in the region. By the way, the Ottoman Empire intended to take back the lands it lost with the Karlowitz Treaty. At the begining of the 18th century, the Cossacks, same like these powers, also changed their strategy. The Ukrainian Cossacks began to feel uncomfortable with the severe conditions of life in Russia which they lived under the auspices of, and they expressed their discomfort by fighting beside Sweden during the Northern Wars. The alliance of the Swedish and Ukrainian Cossacks, whose first struggles were successful, was defeated by the Battle of Poltava. After this defeat, King of Sweden Charles XII. And the hatman (chief) of the Ukrainian Cossacks Ivan Mazepa took refuge with the survivors in the Ottoman lands. The Ottoman Empire patronized these soldiers who had taken refuge in their lands because they had fought against the common enemy Russia, and created conditions in which they could lodge. This study is about the Ukrainian Cossacks who settled first in the Ottoman territories at the begining of the 18th century. In the context of relation of the Cossacks with the Ottoman Empire in general terms; the political, social and economic lives of them have been tried to be determined.

Keywords
Ottoman Territories, Ukrainian Cossacks, Ivan Mazepa, Taking Refuge, Patronage