Carceral Building Stock in Turkey: Architecture, Bureaucracy and Spatial Transformation (1923-47)
In the early Republican era and in the subsequent years (1923-1947) in Turkey, carceral spaces display a heterogeneous architectural landscape that consists of a variety of historical buildings such as mosques, castle or in which were transformed into prisons and of modern jails that were constructed as prestige projects of the new regime. Using Max Weber’s concept of bureaucracy, this article examines the bureaucratic processes, multilateral dialogs and negotiations among the social actors and official institutions such as Ministry for Justice, Ministry of Religious Affair and Endowments (Evkaf) during the formation of these carceral spaces. While it aims to explicate the characteristics of the republican bureaucracy through close readings and critical discourse analysis of archival documents and secondary sources, it also tries to answer the questions such as how the carceral spaces were shaped; in which categories the prisons can be defined in terms of architectural typologies; how the bureaucracy functioned and reproduced its polyphonic language and constructed institutional inner-rationality during the process of creating and managing new carceral spaces.
Early Republican Period, Architecture, Prisons, Space, Bureaucracy