The First Census of the Republic in Diyarbakır in 1927
The Second Meşrutiyet (Constitutional Monarchy) period during which the foundation of the Republic of Turkey was laid was proposing a new state-nation union. Because multi-cultural, multi-national and heterogeneous nature of the society was effective in the Ottoman Empire’s falling into the process of collapse. With the success of the National Struggle, the ruling class underwent significant changes in the political, social, economic and cultural spheres so as to mature the nation-state conception which had been left incomplete by the Union and Progress. While the state was forming its identity, the censuses were one of the changes in the nation-state building process. Because, the new state that was in search for a new identity had to know the qualifications of its population in order to manage its political and social policies. The first ever-scientific census in Turkish history was conducted in 1927. The aim of this study is to discuss the first census in Republic within the context of Diyarbakır province. In this study which mainly consists of quantitative and qualitative data, we have given place to data regarding the population of Diyarbakır province in terms of its the density, marital status, literacy rates, occupational branches, age groups, spoken native languages and religious beliefs. In spite of many articles panned in relation to the history of Diyarbakır, the data of the census performed in 1927 has not been researched. The reason that this study is chosen is to fill this gap. The sources used in the study are the fascicules prepared by the Prime Ministry State Institute of Statistics and the press of the period.

Census, Demography, Diyarbakır, Republic, Nation Building Process