Abstract


Rusk (Peksimet) Supply for Ottoman Hardware in 18th Century
The Ottoman navy is composed of four interconnected navies. The first one is the navy in the shipyard in İstanbul, the second navy of the sea senior,, and the third navy in the Egypt, and the fourth navy of North Africa States (Garb Ocakları). This navy is made up of a series of ships from the galleon to the booze. After march in the seas for six months, each navy will return to their bases in November. The Ottoman navy's original war ship in the 18th century is galleons. Galleons can accommodate a large number of cannons, sailing, and crews with large and high-bodied vessels. Although these ships were used for transportation purposes in the previous centuries, they gained their identity as a warrior in this century. Venus, the enemy of the Ottoman Empire, gained success against the Ottomans with this ship in the wars of Crete. The construction and equipment of galleons was an important issue in the 18th century. The timber of the galleons came from Kaz Mountains and Kocaeli, and the hemp and rope were from Samsun and Bafra, from the upper part of Egypt, from the wire of Ünye, from Wednesday and Thursday, while the sails from Çanakkale were coming from Eflak. Its construction was costly and, after completion of its construction, it required a significant specialist labor force, such as physicians, carpenters, engravers, burgers and sailors. It was an important issue not to leave these people and warriors on the ships hungry at the time of the voyage. Rusk (dried bread) was a necessary material for the crew to serve on ships for a long time. The preparation, cooking, costing, storage and distribution of this material brought about an important need for human and resource organization.

Keywords
_Rusks, bread, Ottoman navy, galleons, Tersane-i Amire