Abstract


MUŠEN / i??uru “bird” in Ancient Mesopotamian Written Sources and An Assessment on its Symbolism
It is understood that Mesopotamian written literature has a rich content after it has been deciphered and translated into modern languages by scholars. Common feature of these documents, which includes diplomatic content or information about daily life, are the success of the writers of the period to observe the world. Thus, in order to make the contents of the documents more comprehensible and to increase their memorability, the writers revealed the results of their observations by the metaphor and symbolism technique which they used in their records. One of the subjects of this technique is MUŠEN / i??uru “bird”. Birds must have a great importance in the minds of the ancient Mesopotamian, thus their creations have been told through a religious poem. The diversity of the symbolism over bird species is remarkable in the texts. Birds that reflect positive emotions such as happiness, loyalty, trust, courage, and vice versa also represent meanings such as fear, discontent, being in distress. The aim of this study is to give a collective information about the bird in the written sources of the ancient Mesopotamia and the importance of the bird symbolism with various meanings in the world of thought.

Keywords
MUŠEN, i??uru, Ancient Mesopotamia, Bird Symbolism.