Abstract


A Study on the Origin of the Doctoral Degree
Since the first period in which they were founded, universities have undergone many changes in terms of content, diploma, academic degrees, and the qualifications of faculty members. The basis of these changes lies in the differentiation of the functions of universities. The differentiation in the functions of universities has inevitably changed the meaning of the doctoral degree. In this paper, it is aimed to reveal the historical origins of both the differentiation of the functions of the universities and the change in the meaning of the doctoral degree. The Medieval University had focused on teaching certain professions. Accordingly, the degree of doctorate in Medieval Age was based on teaching skills. The post-medieval university focuses on developing science as well as educating students on the profession. Parallel to this, firstly in Germany the doctorate has based on scientific research. In the twentieth century, the university added to its function to serve society as well as to serve students and science. The development of scientific and research-oriented universities in Turkey was realized too late.

Keywords
Doctorate degree, University history, University functions, History of Education