Abstract


The Conclusions of Law of the ''Non-Muslım Citizens'' Problem in the Age of ''Sultan Abdulhamid''
The enforcement of European Countries upon the Non-Muslim Ottoman people to rise in revolt, caused the society to want more sovereignty,then independency,as the Ottoman Empire became less strong and as a continuation of the ''Eastern Question''.At the same time, the other Non-Muslim factors in the state were used by European Countries for the politics against Ottoman Empire. In contrast to the expressions within the ''Eastern Question'', Ottoman government, carrying out a reform, worked on the loyalty of the people, at the same time tried to remove the ''so-called'' reasons of the Western Countries to indulge in the internal affairs of the state. 19. century became a period that the Non-Muslim revolts happened as a result of the nationalist movement and the prompting and supporting of Western Countries. European Countries deliberately used the term of ''Eastern Question'', involving themselves in the ''Non-Muslim'' problem in the Ottoman Empire. The term of ''Eastern Question'' first suggested in ''Vienna Congress'(1815), includes the attempts of enforcing Non-Muslims to the revolt about the politics oriented Ottoman Empire. After that, with the support of Western Countries, Non-Muslims wanted more sovereignty and independency and revolted. In response to this, the state carried out some reforms to keep its citizens together and fight against Europe, collectively. This reforms caused some changes on understanding and brought the term of ''Ottoman Citizenship''. In the age of Sultan Abdulhamid, Ottoman Empire made organizations on laws and structure to decrease the rising voice of the citizens and to let the interferences in the world public opinion down. Assuredly, these organizations affected the Ottoman Law System profoundly and caused fundamental changes. In addition to this, lots of prerogatives were given to the Ottoman Citizens in the following years.

Keywords
Eastern Question, Non-Muslim, Reform, Law, Policy