Abstract


Polish and Hungarian Refugees in Ottoman: Could it be considered as a Brian Drain?
As it is known, 1848 Revolutions made a great number of people political criminal, especially in lots of European countries. In addition, they had to leave their own countries and they took refuge in different countries. One of the countries they took refuge in was Ottoman Empire. During and after 1848 Revolutions, the numbers of immigrants have reached ten thousands. Because an important part of immigrants had been graduated from the significant academies in Europe, they were experts on military service, medicine, chemistry, engineering and authorship. The education they had taken had offered good positions to them and they had been working at their area of expertise in Europe. Thus, in 19th century, these immigrants were profitable and sufficient for the accelerated reforms in Ottoman Empire. Therefore, Ottoman Empire was so willing to employ them. The immigrants who were employed for the important positions have taken significant roles in Ottoman modernization. İn this article, the question will be discussed that whether the polish and the Hungarian immigrants who have an important role in Ottoman modernization, especially in military service, medicine, prosperity an education could be considered and studied as the most important brain drain of 19th century.

Keywords
Polish and Hungarian Refugees, Brain Drain, The Ottoman Empire, Modernization,