According to the Turkish Language Association Dictionary smuggling is "a trade done contrary to the law of a state, the act of transferring secretly, surreptitiously". Smuggler is defined as "a person who opposes the law, introduces goods, smuggles or sells goods somewhere". In the first years of the Republic, smuggling was far more present in Eastern borders than in others. The region's borders to numerous countries, neighboring states' inability to meet their obligations, and the geographical and climatic conditions of the region played an effective role in this. The new Turkish state had set important authoritative and administrative regulations in the early years to eliminate smuggling that endangered the treasury and national security as much as possible. Imperfections or new needs in practice led to new legal regulations during the period. In addition to this, good relations were built with neighboring states to prevent smuggling. When all these measures were taken by 1950, smuggling in the region was to a great extent eliminated compared to 1923.
Eastern borders, smuggling, France, England.