Quite valuable studies have been carried out on climate and weather events in the Ottoman State. However, most of the studies do not elaborate on the negative effects of extreme temperatures on people and everyday life. Based on this shortcoming, this study has focused on outlining the negative effects of extreme temperatures in the Ottoman State in the summer months between 1876 and 1916 in detail. In the introduction part of the study, the concept of climate is explained briefly with the Köppen climate classification, which is the most widely used climate classification in the Ottoman Empire's area of dominance. The negative effects of extreme temperatures on daily life and the measures taken in the conditions of the period are emphasized in the first part of the study. The problems experienced during the appointments of district governors in Çukurova and the Arabian Peninsula, where extreme temperatures prevailed in summer months, and the measures taken by the state to protect the health of officials, especially district governors, are outlined in the second part of the study. In the continuation of the study, the problems experienced by security forces, the group most affected by extreme temperatures, is discussed. Topics such as the selection of troops and police to be sent to hot countries, protection of their health and payment of salaries are examined in this section. The negative effects of extreme temperatures on the educational activities in a country and the measures taken by the state to protect the health of children and teachers involved in education are described in the last part of the study.
Climate, Temperature, Summer, Health, Education.